Please login or create an account to join the discussion.

The food waste hierarchy as a framework for managing food surpluses and waste

This research argues that we need to implement a food waste hierarchy approach to preventing and managing food surplus and waste. It argues that a distinction between food surplus and waste is crucial as is the distinction between avoidable and unavoidable waste. Its main message is that food waste can be prevented by adopting a sustainable production and consumption approach and by tackling food surplus and waste throughout the global food supply chain.

A diagram from the paper is copied below showing which actions that can be taken at different stages, from the most to the least preferred option; prevention, re-use, recycle, recovery and disposal.

Image: Figure 5, Papargyropoulou et al. The food waste hierarchy.



The unprecedented scale of food waste in global food supply chains is attracting increasing attention due to its environmental, social and economic impacts. Drawing on interviews with food waste specialists, this study construes the boundaries between food surplus and food waste, avoidable and unavoidable food waste, and between waste prevention and waste management. This study suggests that the first step towards a more sustainable resolution of the food waste issue is to adopt a sustainable production and consumption approach and tackle food surplus and waste throughout the global food supply chain. The authors examine the factors that give rise to food waste throughout the food supply chain, and propose a framework to identify and prioritize the most appropriate options for prevention and management of food waste. The proposed framework interprets and applies the waste hierarchy in the context of food waste. It considers the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic, and social), offering a more holistic approach in addressing food waste. Additionally, it considers the materiality and temporality of food. The food waste hierarchy posits that prevention, through minimization of food surplus and avoidable food waste, is the most attractive option. The second most attractive option involves the distribution of food surplus to groups affected by food poverty, followed by the option of converting food waste to animal feed. Although the proposed food waste hierarchy requires a fundamental re-think of the current practices and systems in place, it has the potential to deliver substantial environmental, social and economic benefits.


Papargyropoulou, E., Lozano, R., Steinberger, J. K., Wright, N., bin Ujang, Z., (2014). The food waste hierarchy as a framework for the management of food surplus and food waste, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 76, Pages 106–115

You can access the paper here and see other literature on food waste and resource use here.

Post a new comment »

Login or register to comment with your personal account. Anonymous comments require approval to be visible.
Larry O'Loughlin
16-11-2021 22:34
Why would any food need to be disposed to a facility? Isn't all food suitable for composting or processing? Is it the packaging that needs to be disposed? Surely suggesting that food can be disposed of means that this option will be used when it is, in fact, unnecessary?
18-11-2021 11:07
Hi Larry - I checked what the original paper has to say and copied in the diagram. The paper sees "disposal" as an option of last resort: "Finally, disposal in landfill is the least favorable option for managing the remaining fraction of unavoidable food waste once all the other options are exhausted." It's not clear from the paper why food waste might need to be disposed of in landfill, but I would guess that it might be necessary if, for example, it had become contaminated with broken glass or other materials or chemicals.